2024 Dicamba Update

On February 6, federal Engenia, Tavium, and XtendiMax registrations were vacated by the Arizonia District Court due to their off-site drift and injury to non-target plants. This court action would prevent the use of these products in 2024. However, the EPA issued an order allowing use of product already in grower possession and limited sale and distribution of these dicamba products that are in the channels of trade. Continue to check MDA's website for possible updates or changes before using Engenia, Tavium, and XtendiMax in 2024.

According to the EPA's Existing Stocks Order for Dicamba Products the sale and distribution of XtendiMax, Engenia, and Tavium will end May 13, 2024 for purchasers south of I-94 and will end May 31, 2024 for purchasers north of I-94.

Additionally, XtendiMax, Engenia, and Tavium must not be applied after June 12, 2024 for users south of I-94 and June 30, 2024 for users north of I-94.

State specific restrictions still apply, see the "Cutoff Date and Cutoff Temperature" section on the Dicamba Herbicide page.

Continue to check the Dicamba Herbicide page for possible updates or changes before using Engenia, Tavium, and XtendiMax in 2024.

Dicamba is a selective systemic herbicide for post-emergence control of broadleaf weeds. It was first registered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1967 and is available in several formulations (see table below). Dicamba is registered for use on a variety of food and feed crops, including corn, barley, wheat, and dicamba tolerant (DT) soybeans. It is also used to control weeds in turf including lawns, golf courses, sports fields, and parks.

Prior to 2016, dicamba in soybeans was restricted to only preplant and preharvest applications. However, since then the US EPA approved post-emergence, or over-the-top (OTT) use for specific dicamba products (Engenia, XtendiMax, Tavium) on dicamba-tolerant (DT) soybeans and cotton.

Pesticide Type Herbicide (Group 4)
Chemical Class Benzoic Acid
Common Trade Names* XtendiMax, Engenia, and Tavium
Registration Status EPA: Registered since 1967, new Over-The-Top products are conditionally registered until December 2025
MN: Registered
Chemical structure of dicamba

*No endorsement is implied in the referencing of trade names.

Dicamba is a highly volatile chemical that can damage non-target plant species through spray drift (particle drift) and/or volatilization (vapor drift). New formulations were designed to reduce volatility. However, since OTT dicamba was registered for use on DT soybeans, the MDA has received complaints each year for off-site movement onto neighboring property. 

Annual Total Reports for Alleged Dicamba Drift

Year Number of Reports
2023 15
2022 32
2021 304
2020 128
2019 20
2018 51
2017 249

Forms of Dicamba Registered for Use (list is not all-inclusive)

Dicamba Form CAS # /
PC code
Trade Names* Soybean OTT Products
Acid 1918-00-9
Celius; Vision;
Dimethylamine (DMA) salt 2300-66-5
Banvel; EndRun;
Cimarron Max
Sodium (Na) salt 1982-69-0
Status; Rave;
Potassium (K) salt 10007-85-9
Lawn 3iP
Diglycolamine (DGA) salt 104040-79-1
Clarity; DiFlexx;
Bis aminopropyl methylamine (BAPMA) salt 100094 Engenia Engenia

*No endorsement is implied in the referencing of trade names.

How it Works

Dicamba is a systemic herbicide that functions as a plant growth regulator. Following application, dicamba is absorbed through leaves and roots of target weeds and is translocated throughout the plant. In the plant, dicamba mimics auxin, a type of plant hormone, and causes abnormal cell division and growth.

Dicamba belongs to the benzoic acid chemical class and is a Site-of-Action 4 herbicide. Other herbicides belonging to Group 4 (synthetic auxins) with a similar mode-of-action include 2,4-D, MCPA, clopyralid, halauxifen-methyl, and aminopyralid.

Use in Minnesota

In Minnesota agriculture, dicamba is used to control weeds in crops including corn, small grain, soybeans, and hay, as well as on fallow cropland, pastures, and land enrolled in conservation reserve programs. In 2016, Minnesota registered three new dicamba products (XtendiMax, Engenia, and FeXapan) for OTT application to DT soybeans to control broadleaf weeds such as pigweeds (Amaranthus spp.), ragweeds (Ambrosia spp.), horseweed (Conyza spp.), and Kochia spp. Prior to 2016, dicamba was registered for pre-plant and pre-emergence applications in conventional soybeans, Roundup Ready soybeans, and Liberty Link soybeans. New DT soybeans are tolerant to dicamba and glyphosate herbicides.

In 2017, the MDA received 249 complaints of off-site dicamba damage. To curb off-site movement, the MDA set June 20 as the annual application cutoff date for registered dicamba products from 2018 to 2020. This date was based on research and pesticide misuse complaints. In October 2020, EPA set June 30 as the application cutoff date on federal labels for OTT dicamba applications to DT soybeans. In 2022, the MDA worked with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the registrants of the three dicamba products to include the date and temperature cutoff restrictions on the product labels. Currently, three dicamba products, XtendiMax with VaporGrip Technology (EPA Reg. No. 264-1210, Bayer), Engenia (EPA Reg. No. 7969-472, BASF) and Tavium Plus VaporGrip Technology (EPA Reg. No. 100-1623, Syngenta) are registered for use in Minnesota. These products are approved for use on DT soybeans and DT cotton only.

Non-agricultural applications of dicamba include uses on residential lawns and on golf course turf throughout the state. Engenia, Tavium, and XtendiMax are not approved for these uses.

The MDA tracks the sale of pesticide active ingredients in the state. The graph below shows annual dicamba sales in Minnesota between 1996 and 2019. Dicamba sales data are pooled for all forms of dicamba and reported as the pounds of dicamba acid equivalents (a.e.) sold. Sales data are available through the Pesticide Sales database.

Bar graph of dicamba sales in Minnesota from 1996-2019. Sales peak in 1998 (nearly 1,600,000), decrease in a downward trend to 2008-2010 (near 200,000) and rise again to nearly 1,200,000 in 2019..
Pounds (lbs) of the active ingredient (AI) dicamba sold in Minnesota from 1996-2019.


The various salts of dicamba are considered to have a similar toxicity to dicamba acid. Furthermore, Dicamba salts are rapidly transformed into the acid form in the environment. Therefore, toxicity information is listed for dicamba acid.

Human Health

Dicamba has a low acute toxicity via oral, dermal, and inhalation routes. It is an eye and dermal irritant, but it is not a skin sensitizer.

Human Health Values for Dicamba Acid. Data from US EPA1 and the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH).

Population Adjusted Dose (PAD) Acute=0.29 mg/kg/day
Chronic=0.04 mg/kg/day
Cancer Effect Not likely to be
carcinogenic to humans
MDH Health Risk Limit (HRL)
(chronic, 1993)
200 µg ae/L

Non-target Organisms

Dicamba toxicity is low for aquatic organisms, mammals, and honeybees, and it is moderately toxic to birds. Non-target plants exposed to dicamba may be damaged by this herbicide.

Dicamba acid toxicity values for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Data from US EPA2

Aquatic Organism Toxicity Values Toxicity Level
Freshwater fish Acute LC50 = 28 mg ae/L
Chronic NOAEC = N/A
Slightly toxic
Freshwater invertebrates Acute EC50 > 50 mg ae/L
Chronic NOAEC = No data
Aquatic plants Vascular EC50 = N/A
Nonvascular EC50 = 0.493 mg ae/L
Most Sensitive Aquatic Life Benchmark (ALB)*

61 µg/L (nonvascular plants)



Terrestrial Organism Toxicity Values Toxicity Level
Mammals Acute oral LD50 = 2,740 mg ae/L
Chronic NOAEC = N/A
Birds Acute oral LC50 = 188 mg ae/L Moderately toxic
Honey bee Acute contact LD50 > 90.65 µg ae/bee Practically

*ALB value based on toxicity data from US EPA3.

Dicamba in the Environment

Dicamba is quickly biodegraded in soil under aerobic conditions (with oxygen) but is more persistent under anaerobic conditions (without oxygen). It is not likely to leach to groundwater due to its fast degradation; however, dicamba may reach surface water via run-off, spray drift during application, or vapor drift. Vapor drift from the volatilization of dicamba can result in injury of nearby non-target plants.

Dicamba salts are rapidly transformed into the acid form in the environment; therefore, properties are listed for dicamba acid.

Chemical Properties

Water Solubility 6100 mg/L
Dissociation Constant pKa = 1.9


Adsorption Koc = 3.45 - 21.1 mL/goc (mean = 13.4)
Soil Metabolism Aerobic half-life = 18 days
Anaerobic half-life = no data
Photolysis no data


Aquatic Metabolism Aerobic half-life = 72.9 days
Anaerobic half-life = 423 days
Photolysis Half-life = 105 days
Hydrolysis Stable


Volatilization Vapor pressure (25°C) = 3.41 x 10-5 torr
Henry's Law constant = 1.79 x 10-8 atm m3/mol


3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid (DCSA) is the major degradate, or breakdown product, of dicamba. Because DCSA is primarily formed in plants, the EPA does not expect DCSA to reach groundwater at levels that would be of concern. However, DCSA is more toxic than the parent compound to certain species of birds and mammals; thus, there could be potential for adverse effects to certain species of birds and mammals. Mitigations are imposed on registration to alleviate these risks. Other minor degradates of dicamba include 3, 6-dichlorogentisic acid (DCGA) and 5-OH-dicamba.

Environmental Hazards

Dicamba product labels include the following statements; however, the language may vary among products. See individual product labels for full list of environmental hazards and spray drift management restrictions or recommendations. Always read the label before applying a pesticide.

Do not apply directly to water, or to areas where surface water is present or to intertidal areas below the mean high water mark. Do not contaminate water when disposing of equipment washwaters or rinsate. Apply this product only as directed

This chemical is known to leach through soil into ground water under certain conditions as a result of agricultural use. Use of this chemical in areas where soils are permeable, particularly where the water table is shallow, may result in ground water contamination.

Ground and Surface Water Protection

  • Point source contamination- Do not mix or load this pesticide within 50 feet of wells (including abandoned wells and drainage wells), sink holes, perennial or intermittent streams and rivers, and natural or impounded lakes and reservoirs.

  • Movement by surface runoff or through soil- Do not apply under conditions which favor runoff. Ground water contamination may occur in areas where soils are permeable or coarse and ground water is near the surface. Do not apply to soils classified as sand with less than 3% organic matter and where ground water depth is shallow.

  • Movement by water erosion of treated soil- Do not apply or incorporate this product through any type of irrigation equipment nor by flood or furrow irrigation. Ensure treated areas have received at least one-half inch rainfall (or irrigation) before using tailwater for subsequent irrigation in other fields.

Endangered Species Concerns

Use of this product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling may pose a hazard to endangered of threatened species.


  1. US EPA Dicamba and Dicamba BAPMA Salt: Human-Health Risk Assessment for Proposed Section 3 New Uses on Dicamba-tolerant Cotton and Soybean (2016). [Docket ID: EPA-HQ-OPP-2016-0223-0002]

  2. US EPA Problem Formulation for the Environmental Fate, Ecological Risk, and Drinking Water Assessments in Support of the Registration Review of Dicamba (2016). [Docket ID: EPA-HQ-OPP-2016-0223-0004]

  3. US EPA Ecological Risk Assessment for Dicamba DGA Salt and its degradate, 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid (DSCA), for the Proposed Post-Emergence New Use on Dicamba-Tolerant Cotton (2016). [Docket ID: EPA-HQ-OPP-2016-0187-0005]