Pollinators are important for food production and healthy ecosystems, and a decline in their populations affects us all. One of the challenges insect pollinators face is exposure to insecticides. Insecticide applications are an important management tool in controlling pest populations. Their use, however, comes with the responsibility to follow the label and select a product that will best control the target pest, while minimizing harm to humans and the environment.

As part of an effort to reduce non-target effects of pesticides to pollinators, a special registration review has been conducted on neonicotinoids – a commonly used class of pesticides in Minnesota. Many of the action steps which resulted from this review aim towards protecting pollinators.

The relative toxicity of insecticides to pollinators, such as the honey bee, is important knowledge when chemical control tactics are being considered for managing pests. The Bee Toxicity Table provides an overview of the lethal dose for each insecticide which results in 50% mortality to honey bees in the test population (also known as the LD50).

Class Group Active Ingredient Honey Bee Contact LD 50 (ug/bee) Honey Bee Contact LD 50 (ppb) Honey Bee Oral LD 50 (ug/bee) Honey Bee Oral LD 50 (ppb) Toxicity Rating Common Products
Avermectin 6 ABAMECTIN 0.0023* 23 0.0044* 44 Highly Toxic REAPER CLEARFORM, 
EPI-MEK 0.15EC
Benzoylureas 15 NOVALURON 100 1,000,000 100 1,000,000 Practically Non-toxic RIMON 0.83EC
Beta-ketonitrile Derivative 25 CYFLUMETOFEN 100 1,000,000 116 1,160,000 Practically Non-toxic NEALTA MITICIDE
Carbamate 1 CARBARYL 0.00011 1.1 0.15 1,500 Highly Toxic CARBARYL 4L INSECTICIDE, 
SEVIN XLR PLUS, 
SEVIN XLR PLUS CARBARYL
Carbamate 1 OXAMYL 0.31 3,100 0.094 940 Highly Toxic VYDATE C-LV,
VYDATE L
Diacylhaydrazine 18 METHOXYFENOZIDE 100 1,000,000 100 1,000,000 Practically Non-toxic INTREPID 2F
Diamide 28 CHLORANTRANILIPROLE     114.1 1,141,000 Practically Non-toxic BESIEGE,
ALTACOR,
CORAGEN,
DUPONT PREVATHON
Diamide 28 FLUBENDIAMIDE 200 2,000,000 200 2,00,000 Practically Non-toxic BELT SC,
TOURISMO
Etoxazole 10 ETOXAZOLE 200 2,000,000 200 2,000,000 Practically Non-toxic ZEAL MITICIDE 1
Flonicamid 29 FLONICAMID 100 1,000,000 60.5 605,000 Practically Non-toxic BELEAF 50 SG
Meti Acaricide/ Insecticide 21 PYRIDABEN 1.81 18,100 2.63 26,300 Highly Toxic NEXTER
Meti Acaricide/ Insecticide 21 FENPYROXIMATE 479.8 4,798,000 118* 1,180,000 Practically Non-toxic PORTAL XLO,
PORTAL
Neonicotinoid 4 ACETAMIPRID 8.1* 81,000 15.1* 151,000 Moderately Toxic ASSAIL 30SG
Neonicotinoid 4 CLOTHIANIDIN 0.0275 275 0.00368 368 Highly Toxic PONCHO BETA,
BELAY INSECTICIDE,
PONCHO VOTIVO,
ACCELERON IC-609
Neonicotinoid 4 DINOTEFURAN 0.047 470 0.023 230 Highly Toxic VENOM
Neonicotinoid 4 IMIDACLOPRID 0.078 780 0.0038 38 Highly Toxic LEVERAGE 360, SWAGGER, GAUCHO 600 FLOWABLE, TEMPEST DUAL-ACTION, ACCELERON IX-409, MANA ALIAS 4F, SKYRAIDER
Neonicotinoid 4 THIAMETHOXAM 0.016 160 0.00265 26.5 Highly Toxic WARDEN CX,
PLATINUM,
ENDIGO ZC,
CRUISERMAXX 
Organochlorine 2 ENDOSULFAN 7.1* 71,000 6.9* 69,000 Moderately Toxic THIONEX 3EC,
THIONEX 50W
Organophosphate 1 ACEPHATE 1.2 12,000 1.37 13,700 Highly Toxic ACEPHATE 97UP
Organophosphate 1 CHLORETHOXYFOS 0.09 900     Highly Toxic SMARTCHOICE 5G
Organophosphate 1 CHLORPYRIFOS 0.059* 590 0.25* 2,500 Highly Toxic WARHAWK, CHLORPYRIFOS 15G, GOVERN 4E, WHIRLWIND,LORSBAN-4E, HATCHET, NUFOS 4E, CPF 4E, LORSBAN ADVANCED, PILOT 4E, AGRISOLUTIONS, MATCH-UP, LORSBAN 15G, WARHAWK, CHLORPYRIFOS 4E-AG, VESPER
Organophosphate 1 DIAZINON 0.37 3,700 0.20* 200,000 Highly Toxic DIAZINON AG600 WBC,
DIAZINON AG500
Organophosphate 1 DIMETHOATE 0.0098 98 0.056 560 Highly Toxic DIMETHOATE 400,
CHEMINOVA
Organophosphate 1 ETHOPROP 2.58* 25,800     Moderately Toxic MOCAP EC
Organophosphate 1 MALATHION 0.27 2,700 0.38 3,800 Highly Toxic MALATHION 5EC
Organophosphate 1 Phostebupirim (Tebupirimiphos) No data         AZTEC 4.67G,
AZTEC 2.1% GRANULAR,
AZTEC 2.1G,
Organophosphate 1 TERBUFOS     4.09 40,900 Moderately Toxic COUNTER 20G, 
COUNTER 15G
Phenylpyrazole 2 FIPRONIL 0.006 60 0.004 40 Highly Toxic REGENT 4SC
Pyrethrin 3 PYRETHRIN 0.022 220 0.15 1,500 Highly Toxic AZERA
Pyrethroid 3 ALPHA-CYPERMETHRIN 0.033* 330 0.172 1,720 Highly Toxic FASTAC EC
Pyrethroid 3 BETA-CYFLUTHRIN 0.012 120 0.05 500 Highly Toxic BAYTHROID XL
Pyrethroid 3 BIFENTHRIN 0.015 150 0.1 1,000 Highly Toxic AGRISOLUTIONS TUNDRA EC, ANNEX LFR, CAPTURE LFR, SNIPER LFR, BRIGADE 2EC, FANFARE 2EC, SNIPER, BIFEN 25% EC, BIFENTHRIN 2 EC, XPEDIENT FC, REVEAL, TUNDRA EC
Pyrethroid 3 CYFLUTHRIN 0.037 370     Highly Toxic TOMBSTONE HELIOS,
AZTEC 2.1% GRANULAR,
TOMBSTONE,
DEFCON 2.1G
Pyrethroid 3 DELTAMETHRIN 0.0015 15 0.079 790 Highly Toxic STORCIDE II
Pyrethroid 3 ESFENVALERATE 0.0172 172     Highly Toxic ASANA XL,
S-FENVALOSTAR
Pyrethroid 3 GAMMA-CYHALOTHRIN 0.0061 61     Highly Toxic COBALT,
BOLTON
Pyrethroid 3 LAMBDA-CYHALOTHRIN 0.038 380 0.909 9,090 Highly Toxic COBALT ADVANCED, 
PARADIGM,
WARRIOR II WITH ZEON TECHNOLOGY,
LAMCAP,
LAMBDASTAR PLUS,
SILENCER
Pyrethroid 3 PERMETHRIN 0.131 1,310 0.024 240 Highly Toxic PERMETHRIN ARCTIC 3.2 EC
PERM-UP 3.2 EC
Pyrethroid 3 TEFLUTHRIN 0.71 7,100 1.74 17,400 Highly Toxic FORCE 3G,
FORCE 3G SMARTBOX,
FORCE CS,
PRECEPT
Pyrethroid 3 ZETA-CYPERMETHRIN 0.023 230 0.172 1,720 Highly Toxic HERO INSECTICIDE MUSTANG MAX,
MUSTANG MAXX
Pyridine
Azomethine
9 PYMETROZINE 200 2,000,000 117 1,170,000 Practically Non-toxic FULFILL
Pyropene 9D AFIDOPYROPEN 200 2,000,000 100 1,000,000 Practically Non-toxic  
Sulfoximine 4 SULFOXAFLOR 0.379 3,790 0.146 1,460 Highly Toxic TRANSFORM WG,
CLOSER SC
Tetronic/Tetramic
Acid Derivative
23 SPIRODICLOFEN 200 2,000,000 196 1,960 Practically Non-toxic ENVIDOR 2 SC
Tetronic/Tetramic
Acid Derivative
23 SPIROTETRAMAT 162 1,620,000 91.7 917,000 Practically Non-toxic MOVENTO

* Refers to LD50 value of a length other than 48 hours; LD50 is not adjusted for level of concern (0.4); different values may be published in literature; values from EPA Ecotoxicity Database. Reference to trade names does not imply endorsement by the MDA; list is based on products sold in Minnesota and does not include all product names or information.