Milk trucks/tankers that cross the LOS must have their exterior surfaces, tires, undercarriage, and storage compartment cleaned and disinfected, with the goal of removing any material that may contain FMD virus before proceeding onto the dairy premises.  

  • Use the least amount of water necessary.
  • Run-off/effluent from the C&D station must be managed such that it does not come in contact with susceptible animals and waterways (including ditches, streams, wetlands) and meets all applicable state, local and municipality regulations. For additional information on appropriate wastewater management options, contact the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency wastewater program at 651-296-6300 or 800-657-3864.
  • See Approved Disinfectants for FMD Virus.
  • Field demonstrations on full-sized milk tankers used 50-60 gallons of water, 15-20 gallons of citric acid, and took approximately 30 minutes to fully clean and disinfect.
  • If the truck was recently cleaned – either upon exiting the processing plant or at a nearby truck wash – and has remained clean, only the tires and undercarriage must be C&D.

Personal Protective Equipment

Proper personal protective equipment must be worn for protection from chemical spray.

  • Read the disinfectant label for specific PPE recommendations.
  1. Gloves: Disposable, or waterproof and able to withstand washing and disinfection
    • At least 2 pair for every person involved and for each vehicle C&D
  2. Protective outerwear: Water resistant (disposable) or waterproof
    • Should cover street clothing, exposed skin, including neck and head
    • At least one pair dedicated to C&D for every person involved
  3. Protective eyewear (goggles, face shield) 
    • At least one dedicated to the C&D station for every person involved
    • Straps go over hooded outerwear
  4. Nose/mouth protection (face shield or facemask)
    • At least one dedicated to the C&D station for every person involved
    • Straps go over hooded outerwear
  5. Protective footwear: Disposable or waterproof to withstand washing and disinfection
    • Should cover the shoes and socks
  6. Wide waterproof tape
    • Use to seal top of gloves and top of protective footwear as needed
  7. Biohazard bags or other receptacle for properly disposing of PPE

­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Removing Disposable PPE

  • Remove tape from top of boots and dispose of in PPE trash receptacle.
  • Unzip the protective outerwear.
  • Pull the protective outerwear off the shoulders touching the outside with gloves on.
    • A buddy system works best: have a second person wearing gloves pull the outerwear down off the shoulders while standing behind you.
    • If alone, grab the outerwear on each side above the waist and wiggle the shoulders free
  • Remove the gloves and dispose of in provided receptacle.
  • Touching only the inside of the protective outwear so as not to contaminate hands, peel the outerwear down to boot level.
  • Sitting on a stool or other support, peel the outerwear and boots off the rest of the way
  • Outerwear and footwear should be disposed of in a manner that does not contaminate personnel, equipment, or expose susceptible animals.

Removing Waterproof PPE

  • Water rinse off outerwear, gloves, and footwear from top to bottom to remove any potential contamination.
  • Remove protective eyewear and store in a protected location.
  • Remove gloves.
    • Dispose of in an approved receptacle – or –
    • If reusable, store in a protected location
  • Remove protective outerwear, protective footwear.
    • Store in a protected location near the C&D station

  1. Dispose of or launder PPE in a manner that does not expose susceptible species to FMD virus or contaminate people, vehicles, equipment, and supplies.
    • Pre-event, estimate the amount of PPE that will be used in a given time frame (daily, weekly) so a disposal or laundering plan can be made to accommodate the volume of PPE used.
    • A clearly marked receptacle should be provided on farm so all personnel know where to dispose of their used PPE.
      • The receptacle must be protected from wind and scavengers. A sealable or latching lid is advised.
      • A removable liner is advised for ease of removal and containment when transporting to its final destination.
    • Burial, burning, or landfilling are likely methods for disposal.
      • These must be in accordance with state, local, and municipal regulations.

C&D Protocol

  1. Soak the area with water and a detergent or cleaning agent (soap), starting with the dirtiest area and working toward the cleaner areas.
    • This will aid in the removal of organic material on the tires, wheel wells, undercarriage, mud flaps, splash guards, and steps.
    • May need to drive the vehicle forward slightly to ensure the tire contact surface is soaked.
  2. Wipe, spray, or scrub the area, starting with the dirtiest and working towards the cleaner areas.
    • This will allow removal of any splatter onto the cleaner areas last.
    • Pressure washers help remove organic matter on the tires, wheel wells, undercarriage, mud flaps, splash guards, and steps.
  3. The spray and wash water run-off from the vehicle wash MUST NOT reach animal holding/housing areas, as FMD virus in organic matter could result in animal exposure.
  4. Remove all detergent/soap residues by applying a low pressure water rinse on all surfaces, starting with the top of the tanker and working down.
  5. Disinfect the milk tanker with an FMD-approved disinfectant that is applied for the recommended wet contact time.
    • Handle the solution correctly according to label directions to ensure safety of the handler and effectiveness of the disinfectant.
    • Apply the product to the cleaned areas of the vehicle, starting with the tires to maximize contact time before moving.
      • Vehicle can be slowly rolled forward to allow the disinfectant to contact all parts of the tires.
    • Allow the product adequate wet contact time (per label directions) with all surfaces to inactivate the virus.
      • Solution must remain ‘wet’ to actively work; reapplication may be necessary.
  6. When exiting the dairy premises, the milk tanker goes through the same C&D steps as upon entry.
    • To minimize the time required for extensive cleaning, minimize contamination of the tanker’s exterior while driving on the dairy premises and during milk loading. 

***See PPE Precautions below***

Precautions While Wearing PPE at the C&D Station

The buddy system (two people) works best when donning and doffing PPE, as well as watching for signs of heat-related illness, fatigue, or injury.

  • The second person also makes sure street clothes are not contaminated should the PPE fail or become damaged.
  • At a minimum, another person should be aware of the presence of personnel in PPE on the dairy premises to provide assistance if needed.

Heat related illnesses

  • High temperatures, high humidity, direct sun, direct heat, limited air movement, physical exertion, poor physical condition, certain medications, a low tolerance for heat, and certain types of PPE can all contribute to heat-related illnesses.
  • It is important that personnel are familiar with the signs of heat-related illnesses and stop working if any symptoms are experienced or noticed.
  • To prevent heat-related illness, limit work shifts so that personnel have time out of PPE to rehydrate, rest, and cool off.
  • A cooling vest may be worn under the protective outerwear as needed.

Cold stress

  • Additional insulated underclothing may be needed to ensure personnel are able to maintain their core body temperature.
  • To prevent cold stress, limit shifts so that personnel have time out of PPE to warm up, rest, and remain hydrated.

Slips, trips, and falls

  • It is important the protective footwear fit well and provide comfort, or the wearer will be less agile, more apt to trip, or not comply with wearing them.
  • Ensuring a safe walking and climbing environment is as important as disease control.
    • Personnel must feel comfortable walking around to follow biosecurity protocols.

Additional Information

Cleaning and Disinfection Station on a Livestock Premises – this site contains a video and written instructions for setting up a temporary C&D station, supply checklist, and resource list.