Common Names: Dalmatian Toadflax, Broadleaf Toadflax, and Wild Snapdragon
Scientific Name: Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill. ssp. dalmatica
Related Species: Yellow toadflax, Linaria vulgaris (L.) Mill
All above and below ground parts of the plant must be destroyed. Additionally, no transportation, propagation, or sale of these plants is allowed. Failure to comply may result in enforcement action by the county or local municipality. Minnesota Noxious Weed Law.
Minnesota is fortunate to have very few Dalmatian toadflax infestations. The goal is to eradicate infestations before Dalmatian toadflax spreads and becomes a serious weed issue in our state. Dalmatian toadflax is native to the Mediterranean region and was originally introduced as an ornamental to the west coast of North America in the late 1800s. It escaped cultivation and has overtaken grasslands in pastures, rangelands, and natural areas in the west.
Dalmatian toadflax prefers sunny areas with well-drained often coarse-textured soils. These areas can include roadsides, pastures, residential areas, cemeteries, gravel pits, and waste areas.
Dalmatian toadflax can quickly colonize an area because it spreads by sprouts from the lateral roots and by seed. Over its lifetime, a single plant can produce up to 500,000 seeds that can persist in the seedbank for up to 10 years. Dalmatian toadflax flowers have both male and female parts and the species is self-compatible, meaning that a single plant can produce viable seed and start an infestation. Seed dispersal begins shortly after flowering and continues into winter. Dispersal can be by wind, water, wildlife, vehicles and equipment, forage, and livestock.
Most Dalmatian toadflax infestations are in western states. In these areas, Dalmatian toadflax has increased at a rate of 8-29% per year depending on the site. In Minnesota, there is a confirmed infestation in Kittson County in the far northwestern part of the state. Herbarium specimens were collected at sites in Cook and Cass Counties in northeastern and north central Minnesota respectively, but there are not confirmed infestations at these locations. View Dalmatian toadflax distribution in Minnesota.
Dalmatian toadflax outcompetes desirable species to form large monocultures. Infestations in western states have reduced livestock production, land values, biodiversity, and wildlife habitat.
Dalmatian toadflax contains an iridoid glycoside (a quinoline alkaloid) and a peganine so it is toxic to some livestock such as cattle. However, cattle avoid Dalmatian toadflax and there are no confirmed reports of livestock poisoning.
MDA Noxious Weed Program
County Ag Inspectors
Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA), 625 Robert Street N, St. Paul, MN 55155-2538, firstname.lastname@example.org