Burke, Dennis. 2001. Dairy Waste Anaerobic Digestion Handbook: Options for Recovering Beneficial Products from Dairy Manure (PDF: 1.66 MB / 57 pages). Environmental Energy Company.
This manual provides an introduction to the anaerobic digestion of dairy manure. The manual is divided into three parts: the first describes the operation and waste management practices of Idaho dairies; the second introduces anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion process suitable for dairy waste; and, the third presents typical design applications for different type of dairies and establishes the cost and benefits of the facilities.
Fehrs, Jeffrey. 2000. Vermont Methane Pilot Project Resource Assessment (PDF: 156 KB / 59 pages). Prepared for the Vermont Department of Public Service and Vermont Department of Agriculture, Food, and Markets.
The purpose of this resource assessment is to quantify on a statewide (Vermont) basis the amount of dairy manure and other organic residues and wastes that are generated and the amount could potentially be used in farm-based anaerobic manure digestion systems. Estimates of the electrical energy potential of farm-based anaerobic manure digestion are made based on quantities potentially available and assumed conversion factors and efficiencies. The residues and wastes included in the assessment are dairy manure, other manures, cheese whey, food processing residuals, brewery residuals, food waste, and biosolids. Of the 30 MW potential for AD in Vermont, 94% of that total would be from dairy manure.
Katers, John F. and Schultz, Joe. 2003. Temperature Phased Anaerobic Digestion System Monitoring Project at Tinedale Farm (PDF: 154 KB / 37 pages). University of Wisconsin - Green Bay .
Dairy farmers in Tillamook County (Oregon) are under financial and regulatory pressure to manage the manure their cows produce. Although the waste management systems farmers commonly use reduce the amount of manure in runoff, they do not remove harmful bacteria from the manure. Neither do they provide farmers with ways to offset farm costs. This case study explores an alternative for handling dairy waste that does both. AD is an effective method of making manure less environmentally harmful while providing farmers with economic benefits.
Kramer, Joseph. 2002. Agricultural Biogas Casebook (PDF: 904 KB / 87 pages). Resource Strategies, Inc. prepared report for the Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program Council of Great Lakes Governors.
This casebook presents profiles of farms using ADs for animal manures in the Great Lakes States: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The purpose of this casebook is to provide a picture of the current state of on-farm AD use in these states in the spring of 2002. The summary of information provided in these profiles can help those considering using AD technology to make informed choices and provide general improvement in implementation efficiency and operator success. Furthermore, through sharing their experiences, these early adopters may help service providers better understand the needs of their customers, and aid the next wave of adopters in making a smooth transition to using biogas systems.
Martin, John. 2003. A Comparison of Dairy Cattle Manure Management with and without Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Utilization (PDF: 544 KB / 59 pages). Eastern Research Group, Inc. prepared report for AgSTAR Program U.S. EPA.
The objectives of this study were to compare: 1) the reductions in the potential air and water quality impacts of scraped dairy manure by preceding liquid-solids separation and storage with mesophilic anaerobic digestion in a plug flow reactor with a flexible geomembrane, and 2) the associated cost differential. The results of this study provide further confirmation of the environmental quality benefits realized by the AD of dairy cattle manure with biogas collection and utilization for the generation of electricity. The results also confirm that the environmental quality benefits can be realized while concurrently generating revenue adequate to recover capital invested and increase farm net income through on-site use and sale of electricity generated.
Mehta, Aashish. 2002. The Economics and Feasibility of Electricity Generation using Manure Digesters on Small and Mid-sized Dairy Farms (PDF: 257 KB / 21 pages). University of Wisconsin-Madison Dept. of Ag and Applied Economics Energy Analysis and Policy Program.
This paper is to serve as a first pass at the economics of digesters and generators. Three generalizations came through in this paper: 1) there are significant external benefits to producing electricity using digesters instead of coal, 2) AD technology is still in its infancy, and 3) it is not useful to consider a farm’s digestion/generations operations merely as an appended operation that could marginally improve it’s bottom line….The economic linkages between digester and dairy operations are significant and complex.
Nelson, Carl and Lamb, John. 2002. Final Report: Haubenschild Farms Anaerobic Digester Updated (PDF: 706 KB / 39 pages). The Minnesota Project.
This report is an update of the December 2000 report and documents the installation and 34-month performance of a heated plug-flow anaerobic digester for managing dairy manure at Haubenschild Farms. This type of digester is appropriate for treating manure with a high solids content, such as cow manure that is collected by scraping.
Porter, K., Wiser, R., and Bolinger, M. 2002. Two Different Approaches to Funding Farm-Based Biogas Projects in Wisconsin and California (PDF: 302 KB / 7 pages). Berkeley Lab, Clean Energy Group, and Exeter Associates.
California and Wisconsin are the two leading dairy producing states in the nation. Both states are interested in developing biogas projects from livestock manure, but have targeted their renewable energy application differently. California has allocated nearly $10 million in incentives and grants as a catalyst for dairy operations to further biogas systems in the state. Wisconsin has a more modest financial incentive and is relying more extensively on education and outreach and other regulatory mechanisms to encourage biogas facilities.