Common Name: Garlic Mustard
Latin Name: Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande
Reviewer: Laura Van Riper
Affiliation/Organization: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
FILE #: MDARA00026GMUS_2_24_2014
Review Entity | Outcome
Garlic mustard is a biennial forb that grows well in shaded areas. While garlic mustard is most commonly found in deciduous forests, it can also be found in coniferous forests or along edges of forests, roadsides, flooded riverbanks, and steep sandy soil (Cavers et al. 1979).
Anderson, R. C., S. D. Shivcharn, and T. M. Kelley. 1996. Aspects of the ecology of the invasive plant, garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) in central Illinois. Restoration Ecology 4: 181-191.
Ashton, I.W., L. A. Hyatt, K. M. Howe, J. Gurevitch, M.T. Lerdau. 2005. Invasive species accelerate decomposition and litter nitrogen loss in a mixed deciduous forest. Ecological Applications 15: 1263–1272.
Bauer, J. T. 2012. Invasive species:“back-seat drivers” of ecosystem change? Biological Invasions 14: 1295-1304.
Blossey, B., V. A. Nuzzo, H. L. Hinz, and E. Gerber. 2001. Developing biological control of Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara and Grande (garlic mustard). Natural Areas Journal 21: 357–367.
Callaway, R.M., Cipollini, D., Barto, K., Thelen, G.C., Hallett, S.G., Prati, D., Stinson, K, Klironomos, J. 2008. Novel weapons: Invasive plant suppresses fungal mutualists in America, but not in its native Europe. Ecology 89: 1043-1055.
Cavers, P. B., M. I. Heagy, and R. F. Kokron. 1979. The biology of Canadian weeds. 35. Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara and Grande. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 59: 217-229.
Cipollini, D. and B. Gruner. 2007. Cyanide in the chemical arsenal of garlic mustard, Alliaria petiolata. Journal of Chemical Ecology 33: 85–94.
Courant, A. V., A. E. Holbrook, E. D. Van der Reijden, and F. S. Chew. 1994. Native pierine butterfly (Pieridae) adapting to naturalized crucifer? Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 48: 168-170.
Davis, M.A., A. Colehour, J. Daney, E. Foster, C. MacMillan, E. Merrill, J. O’Neill, M. Pearson, M. Whitney, M.D. Anderson, J.J. Dosch. 2012. The Population Dynamics and Ecological Effects of Garlic Mustard, Alliaria petiolata, in a Minnesota Oak Woodland. American Midland Naturalist. 168: 364–374.
Drayton, B., and R. B. Primack. 1999. Experimental extinction of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) populations: implications for weed science and conservation biology. Biological Invasions 1: 159–167.
EDDMapS. 2013. Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System. The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. Accessed March 28, 2013.
Evans, J. A. and D. A. Landis. 2007. Pre-release monitoring of Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) invasions and the impacts of extant natural enemies in southern Michigan forests. Biological Control 42: 300–307.
Gerber, E., H. L. Hinz, and B. Blossey. 2007a. Interaction of specialist root and shoot herbivores of Alliaria petiolata and their impact on plant performance and reproduction. Ecological Entomology 32: 357–365.
Gerber, E., H. L. Hinz, and B. Blossey. 2007b. Impact of the belowground herbivore and potential biological control agent, Ceutorhynchus scrobicollis, on Alliaria petiolata performance. Biological Control 42: 355–364.
Hochstedler, W. W., B. S. Slaughter, D. L. Gorchov, L. P. Saunders, and H. H. Stevens. 2007. Forest floor plant community response to experimental control of the invasive biennial, Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard). The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 134: 155–165.
Huang, X. P., J. A. A. Renwick, and F. S. Chew. 1995. Oviposition stimulants and deterrents control acceptance of Alliaria petiolata by Pieris rapae and P. napi oleracea. Chemoecology 5/6: 79-87.
Keeler, M. S., F. S. Chew, B. Goodale, and J. M. Reed. 2006. Modelling the impacts of two exotic invasive species on a native butterfly: top-down vs. bottom-up effects. Journal of Animal Ecology 75: 777-788.
Klironomos, J. N. 2002. Feedback with soil biota contributes to plant rarity and invasiveness in communities. Nature 41(7): 67-70.
McCarthy, B. C. 1997. Response of a forest understory community to experimental removal of an invasive nonindigenous plant (Alliaria petiolata, Brassicaceae). Pages 117-130 in J. O. Luken and J. W. Thieret, editors. Assessment and management of plant invasions. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Meekins, J. F., and B. C. McCarthy. 1999. Competitive ability of Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard, Brassicaceae), an invasive, nonindigenous forest herb. International Journal of Plant Science 160: 743-752.
MIPN Control Database. 2013. Midwest Invasive Plant Network Invasive Plant Control Database. Accessed March 29, 2013.
Myers, C. V., and R. C. Anderson. 2003. Seasonal Variation in Photosynthetic Rates Influences Success of an Invasive Plant, Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata). American Midland Naturalist 150: 231-245.
Nuzzo, V. A. 1999. Invasion pattern of the herb garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) in high quality forests. Biological Invasions 1: 169–179.
Nuzzo, V. A., J. C. Maerz, and B. Blossey. 2009. Earthworm invasion as the driving force behind plant invasion and community change in northeastern North American forests. Conservation Biology 23: 966–974.
Porter, A. 1994. Implications of the introduced garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) in the habitat of Pieris virginiensis (Pieridae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 48: 171-172.
Prati, D. and O. Bossdorf. 2004. Allelopathic inhibition of germination by Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae). American Journal of Botany 91: 285-288.
Renwick, J. A. A., W. Zhang, M. Haribal, A. B. Attygale, and K. D. Lopez. 2001. Dual chemical barriers protect a plant against different larval stages of an insect. Journal of Chemical Ecology 27: 1575-1583.
Roberts, K. J. and R. C. Anderson. 2001. Effect of garlic mustard [Alliaria petiolata (Beib. Cavara & Grande)] extracts on plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. American Midland Naturalist 146: 146-152.
Rodgers, V.L., B.E. Wolfe, L.K. Werden, A.C. Finzi. 2008. The invasive species Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) increases soil nutrient availability in northern hardwood-conifer forests. Oecologia 157: 459–471.
Scott, D. R. 2000. Aspects of the ecology of garlic mustard, Alliaria petiolata (Bieb) Cavara and Grande, in Ohio. Ph.D. The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
Stinson, K. A., S. A. Campbell, J. R. Powell, B. E. Wolfe, R. M. Callaway, G. C. Thelen, S. G. Hallett, D. Prati, and J. N. Klironomos. 2006. Invasive plant suppresses the growth of native tree seedlings by disrupting belowground mutualisms. PLoS Biology 4: e140.
Stinson, K., S. Kaufman, L. Durbin, and F. Lowenstein. 2007. Impacts of garlic mustard invasion on a forest understory community. Northeastern Naturalist 14: 73–88.
Van Riper, L.C., R.L. Becker, L.C. Skinner. 2010. Population biology of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) in Minnesota hardwood forests. Invasive Plant Science and Management 3: 48-59.
Vaughn, S. F., and M. A. Berhow. 1999. Allelochemicals isolated from tissues of the invasive weed garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata). Journal of Chemical Ecology 25: 2495-2504.
Wolfe, B., and J. N. Klironomos. 2005. Breaking new ground: soil communities and exotic plant invasion. BioScience 55: 477-487.
Wolfe, B. E., V. L. Rodgers, K. A. Stinson, and A. Pringle. 2008. The invasive plant Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) inhibits ectomycorrhizal fungi in its introduced range. Journal of Ecology 96: 777–783.
Yost, S. E., S. Antenen, and G. Hartvigsen. 1991. The vegetation of the Wave Hill natural area, Bronx, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 118: 312-3.